Why JavaScript and PHP rule the web

JavaScript and PHP are excellent languages. It took some time for me to really understand their power, and I hope to clarify my point of view in this post.

I believe that those languages shine and survive for being permissive and by adopting an Assumption Inversion Principle (AIP) — I’ve made up that name, you may suggest a better one in the comments. 🙂

What is AIP?

Raw JavaScript does not have any module definition structure, no statements as “import” or “include”. Symbols available for a piece of code written in JavaScript are pure assumptions. Those assumptions must be satisfied by other pieces of code, and not by itself. It is incredibly easy to change behaviours by loading new script files before the one to be changed by changing the link of its assumptions. This “change by adding” relates directly with the “O” in the SOLID principles.

Old PHP code goes the same way, your piece of code has some assumptions that some symbols are available and you simply use it. It is not the responsibility of your piece of code to link those symbols, you normally end up putting all of your script loading in something like a bootstrap system.

Import statements are bad, because they hardwire the symbols in your piece of code. Then if you need to change something, you actually need to get into the file and change it. In my opinion, “change by changing” is more prone to errors than “change by adding”. Also, “change by changing” does not scale as well as “change by adding”.

JavaScript and PHP code can also inspect its environment and adapt. So it’s possible to keep adding files that keep changing stuff depending on what has already changed or what is currently available for the script. This is pure gold in software development.

Think about WordPress plugins, you don’t need touch a single line of the core code, you just drop a new file and you can get a whole new experience out of your web site. Some plugins add features, other plugins only change behaviours. So, it either “add by adding” or “change by adding.” It’s a win-win situation, core code is hardly changed to add a feature, so you won’t get any bug from features you don’t care. For the features that you care, you get the plugins, drop them in and live with the bugs, if you happen to find a scary security bug, just disable the plugin.

I know a lot of people who criticize this way of developing and would prefer that WordPress be more object-oriented than it currently is. For what? Then we would need a plethora of new abstractions to achieve the same stuff. As code is a liability, the less code we need to achieve something, the better.

I love Haskell and its type system, it’s phenomenal. But it suffers from the same problem as other languages like Java and C# suffer. Modules are hard-wired with their dependencies and code can’t inspect its environment. I’m not saying that those languages are bad and should not be used. They surely has their own good use cases.

For a fast and distributed development effort as the web is, we simply can’t afford anything that is unforgiving or strict. The code needs to be open for changes from the outside (change by adding).

So, for the web, I don’t like new PHP code that uses modules and neither the usage of ES6. They may feel faster for developers starting out new products, but my bet is that in the long run they end up killing productivity and/or quality.

Think about it for the current project you are working on, how much could you change of it by only adding new files? What could you deliver by adding a new file: a whole new story, a feature, a bug fix or nothing?

All this permissive environment with all these code based on assumptions can turn into a real mess. That’s the reason those languages are hated by some developers, then those developers try to fix it by creating new stricter languages for the web, the end of the story is always the same: JavaScript/PHP triumphs over all. Why? Is it because of AIP?

JavaScript and PHP has some hidden properties that newcomers tend to ignore. Those hidden properties make them a perfect fit for the web. What do you think?

Am I just an old-school guy talking bullshit? Please, be kind. 🙂

Dunning-Kruger effect on effort estimates

This post has two parts. The first is an experiment with a poll. The second is the actual content with my thoughts.

The experiment and the poll comes first as I don’t want to infect you with my idea before you answer the questions. If you are in the mood of reading a short story and answering a couple of questions, keep reading. In case you are only concerned with my ideas, you may skip the first part.

I won’t give any discussion about the subject. I’m just throwing my ideas to the internet, be warned.

Part 1. The experiment

You have to estimate the effort needed to complete a particular task of software development. You may use any tool you’d like to do it, but you will only get as much information as I will tell you now. You will use all the technologies that you already know, so you won’t have any learning curve overhead and you will not encounter any technical difficulty when doing the task.

Our customer is bothered by missing other co-workers birthdates. He wants to know all co-workers that are cellebrating birthday or just cellebrated, so he can send a “happy birthday” message at the very morning, when he just turned on his computer. To avoid sending duplicated messages, he doesn’t want to see the same person on multiple days at the list.

Your current sofware system already have all workers of the company with birthdates and their relationship, so you can figure out pretty easily who are the co-workers of the user and when is the birthdate of everyone.

Now, stop reading further, take your time and estimate the effort of this task by answering the following poll.


Estimate your effort

Okay, now I’ll give you more information about it and ask for your estimate again.

Some religions do not celebrate birthdates and some people get really mad when receiving a message of “happy birthday”. To avoid this, you also need to check if the user wants to make its birthdate public.

By the way, the customer’s company closes at the weekend, so you need to take into account that at monday you will need to show birthdates that happened at the weekend and not only of the current day.

This also applies to holidays. The holidays are a bit harder as it depends on the city of the employee, as they may have different holidays.

Oh, and don’t forget to take into account that the user may have missed a day, so it needs to see everyone that he would on the day that he missed the job.

Now, take your time and estimate again.


Estimate your effort – II

Part 2. The Dunning-Kruger effect on estimates

I don’t know if the little story above tricked you or not, but that same story tricked me in real-life. 🙂

The Dunning-Kruger effect is stated at Wikipedia as:

“[…] a cognitive bias wherein relatively unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability to be much higher than is accurate. This bias is attributed to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to accurately evaluate their own ability level. Conversely, highly skilled individuals may underestimate their relative competence, erroneously assuming that tasks that are easy for them are also easy for others.”

I’m seeing that this effect contributes to make the task of estimating effort to be completely innacurate by nature, as it always pulls to a bad outcome. If you know little about it, you will overestimate your knowledge and consequently underestimate the effort to accomplish it. If you know much, you will underestimate your knowledge and consequently overestimate the effort.

I guess one way to minimize this problem is to remove knowledge up to the point that you only have left the essential needed to complete the task. Sort of what Taleb calls “via negativa” in his Antifragile book.

What do you think? Does this makes any sense to you?